Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund and Essen.
Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD.
The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch (cf.
dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e.
During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well as Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes in Central and Eastern Europe.Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania (an area extending roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains).belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants.This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word "Teutons" also originates.After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the democratic West Germany and the socialist East Germany.